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如何完成一個出色的英文演講,高頻句型都在這

出自:英語語法  發布于:2022年03月13日

A presentation is a formal talk to one or more people that "presents" ideas or information in a clear, structured way. People are sometimes afraid of speaking in public, but if you follow a few simple rules, giving a presentation is actually very easy. This tutorial guides you through each stage of giving a presentation in English, from the initial preparation to the conclusion and questions and answers. This tutorial is itself set out like a mini-presentation. You can follow it logically by starting at the presentations introduction page and then clicking on the link at the foot of each page, or you can jump direct to the section you want from the list of contents on each page.演講是與一個或多個人的正式談話,以清晰、結構化的方式“呈現”想法或信息。人們有時害怕在公共場合演講,但如果你遵循一些簡單的規則,做演講其實很容易。本教程將指導您完成用英語進行演示的每個階段,從最初的準備到結束以及問答。本教程本身就像一個迷你演示文稿。您可以從演示文稿介紹頁開始,然后單擊每頁底部的鏈接,或者從每頁的內容列表中直接跳到所需的部分。

All presentations have a common objective. People give presentations because they want to communicate in order to: inform /train /persuade /sell所有的演講都有一個共同的目標。人們做演講是因為他們想交流,以便:告知/培訓/說服/推銷

A successful presentation is one of the most effective ways of communicating your message. And because English is so widely used in international business, a working knowledge of the vocabulary and techniques used in an English language presentation is a valuable asset.成功的演講是傳達信息最有效的方式之一。而且,由于英語在國際商務中的應用如此廣泛,掌握英語演講中使用的詞匯和技巧是一筆寶貴的財富。

Can you name the 3 most important things when giving any presentation?你能說出演講中最重要的三件事嗎?

Number 1 is . . . preparation /Number 2 is . . . preparation /Number 3 is . . . preparation第一個是...準備/第二個是...準備/第三個是...準備

Preparation is everything.準備就是一切。

With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control of your audience and of your presentation. With control, you will be ’in charge’ and your audience will listen positively to your message.有了良好的準備和計劃,你就會完全自信,不再緊張。你的觀眾會感受到你的自信。你的觀眾也會很自信。他們會對你充滿信心的。這會給你控制權。控制你的聽眾和你的演講。有了控制權,你就“掌控”了,你的聽眾就會積極地傾聽你的信息。

Objective目標

Before you start to prepare a presentation, you should ask yourself: "Why am I making this presentation?" Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.在開始準備演講之前,你應該問問自己:“我為什么要做這個演講?”你需要告知、說服、培訓還是銷售?你的目標應該在你的頭腦中清楚。如果你心里不清楚,你的聽眾就不可能清楚。

Audience聽眾

"Who am I making this presentation to?" Sometimes this will be obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4 colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know already and what will they expect from you?“我要向誰做這個演示?”有時這是顯而易見的,但并非總是如此。你應該試著告訴自己。有多少人?他們是誰?生意人?專業人士?政治人物?專家還是非專家?會是一個由4位同事組成的小而親密的團隊,還是一個由400名競爭對手組成的大型聚會?他們已經知道多少了?他們對你有什么期望?

Venue地點

"Where am I making this presentation?" In a small hotel meeting-room or a large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are the seating arrangements?“我在哪里做這個演示?”在酒店的小會議室還是大會議廳?有哪些設施和設備?座位安排如何?

Time and length時間和長度

"When am I making this presentation and how long will it be?" Will it be 5 minutes or 1 hour? Just before lunch, when your audience will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?“我什么時候做這個報告,需要多長時間?”是5分鐘還是1小時?午餐前,你的聽眾會餓,還是午餐后,你的聽眾會困?

Method方法

How should I make this presentation?" What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? Will you include some anecdotes and humour for variety?我應該如何做這個演示?”你應該用什么方法?正式還是非正式?很多視覺教具還是只有幾個?你會提供一些趣聞軼事和幽默嗎?

Content內容

"What should I say?" Now you must decide exactly what you want to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your presentation. But you must be selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also need to create a title for your presentation (if you have not already been given a title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. And you will prepare your visual aids, if you have decided to use them. But remember, in general, less is better than more (a little is better than a lot). You can always give additional information during the questions after the presentation.“我該說什么?”現在你必須決定你到底想說什么。首先,你應該集思廣益。毫無疑問,你會發現許多想法,你想包括在你的介紹。但你必須有選擇性。你應該只包括與你的聽眾和你的目標相關的信息。你應該排除所有其他的想法。您還需要為您的演示文稿創建一個標題(如果您尚未獲得標題)。這個題目能幫助你集中注意力。如果你決定使用視覺輔助工具,你會準備好的。但請記住,總的來說,少總比多好(少總比多好)。你可以在演講后的提問中提供更多的信息。

Structure結構

A well organised presentation with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is therefore more effective. You should organise the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most presentations are organised in three parts, followed by questions:[/en]組織良好、結構清晰的演講更容易讓觀眾聽懂。因此更有效。你應該把你想表達的觀點按邏輯順序組織起來。大多數演講分為三個部分,然后是問題:

[en]Beginning: introduction /welcome your audience /introduce your subject /explain the structure of your presentation /explain rules for questions

開場白:介紹/歡迎聽眾/介紹主題/解釋演講結構/解釋提問規則

Middle:Body of presentation /present the subject itself中間:呈現主體/呈現主體本身

End:Short conclusion /summarise your presentation /thank your audience /invite questions結束語:簡短總結/總結你的演講/感謝聽眾/邀請提問

Questions and Answers問題和回答

Notes筆記

When you give your presentation, you should be - or appear to be - as spontaneous as possible. You should not read your presentation! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don’t have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say? With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down just the title of each section of their talk. Some people write down keywords to remind them. The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your presentation fully, you may not even need them!當你做演講時,你應該盡可能的自發。你不應該看你的報告!你應該非常熟悉你的主題和你想要傳達的信息,這樣你就不需要閱讀文本了。讀課文很無聊!讀一篇課文會讓你的聽眾睡著!所以,如果你沒有一個文本閱讀,你怎么能記得說你需要說的一切?帶著筆記。您可以創建自己的筆記系統。有些人在A6小卡片上做筆記。有些人只寫下他們演講的每一部分的標題。有些人寫下關鍵詞來提醒他們。筆記會給你信心,但是因為你已經準備好了你的演講,你甚至可能不需要它們!

Rehearsal彩排

Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your presentation two or three times. This will have the following benefits: you will become more familiar with what you want to say /you will identify weaknesses in your presentation /you will be able to practise difficult pronunciations /you will be able to check the time that your presentation takes and make any necessary modifications排練是準備工作的重要組成部分。你應該留出時間練習你的演講兩三次。這將有以下好處:你將更加熟悉你想說的話/你將發現你演講中的弱點/你將能夠練習困難的發音/你將能夠檢查你的演講所花費的時間并做出任何必要的修改

So prepare, prepare, prepare! Prepare everything: words, visual aids, timing, equipment. Rehearse your presentation several times and time it. Is it the right length? Are you completely familiar with all your illustrations? Are they in the right order? Do you know who the audience is? How many people? How will you answer difficult questions? Do you know the room? Are you confident about the equipment? When you have answered all these questions, you will be a confident, enthusiastic presenter ready to communicate the subject of your presentation to an eager audience.

Easily your most important piece of equipment is...YOU! Make sure you’re in full working order, and check your personal presentation carefully - if you don’t, your audience will!準備,準備,準備!準備一切:文字,視覺輔助,時間,設備。排練你的演講好幾次并計時。長度合適嗎?你完全熟悉你所有的插圖嗎?它們的順序正確嗎?你知道觀眾是誰嗎?有多少人?你將如何回答困難的問題?你知道那個房間嗎?你對設備有信心嗎?當你回答完所有這些問題后,你將成為一個自信、熱情的演講者,隨時準備向熱切的聽眾傳達你的演講主題。你最重要的裝備就是…你!確保你完全處于工作狀態,仔細檢查你的個人陳述——如果你不這樣做,你的聽眾會的!

Equipment that you may use:你可能會用到的工具:

notebook computer筆記本電腦

The notebook computer is used to display text and graphics during presentations. Basically, it can display anything that you put on your computer screen, including entire presentations generated by presentation software. An excellent tool if used in moderation, but not as an alternative to you—the speaker. It is often used in conjunction with an overhead projector or other projector, which projects the image from the computer screen onto the wall screen.筆記本電腦用于在演示過程中顯示文本和圖形。基本上,它可以顯示你放在電腦屏幕上的任何東西,包括演示軟件生成的整個演示文稿。一個很好的工具,如果使用適度,但不是作為一個替代你的演講者。它通常與投影儀或其他投影儀一起使用,投影儀將計算機屏幕上的圖像投影到墻上的屏幕上。

A good workman never blames his tools.一個好工人從不責怪他的工具。

overhead projector (OHP) The overhead projector (OHP) displays overhead transparencies (OHTs or OHPTs). It has several advantages over the 35mm slide projector: it can be used in daylight /the user can face the audience /the user can write or draw directly on the transparency while in use高架投影儀(OHP)高架投影儀(OHP)顯示高架透明膠片(OHT或OHPT)。它比35mm幻燈機有幾個優點:可以在日光下使用/用戶可以面對觀眾/用戶可以在使用時直接在透明膠片上寫字或畫畫

whiteboard白板

The whiteboard (more rarely blackboard or greenboard) is a useful device for spontaneous writing - as in brainstorming, for example. For prepared material, the OHP might be more suitable.白板(很少是黑板或綠板)是自發寫作的有用工具,例如在頭腦風暴中。對于制備的材料,OHP可能更合適。

duster板擦

The duster is used for cleaning the whiteboard. It is essential that the duster be clean to start with. You may consider carrying your own duster just in case.撣子是用來清潔白板的。撣子一開始就必須干凈。你可以考慮帶上你自己的撣子以防萬一。

felt marker毛氈記號筆

Markers are used for writing on the whiteboard (delible - you can remove the ink) or flipchart (indelible - you cannot remove the ink). They are usually available in blue, red, black and green. Again, it’s a good idea to carry a spare set of markers in case you are given some used ones which do not write well.記號筆是用來在白板上寫字的(可以去掉墨水),也可以在活動掛圖上寫字(不能去掉墨水)。它們通常有藍色、紅色、黑色和綠色。再說一次,帶一套備用的記號筆是個好主意,以防別人給你一些寫得不好的舊記號筆。

flipchart or paper-board掛圖或紙板

The flipchart consists of several leaves of paper that you ’flip’ or turn over. Some people prefer the flipchart to the whiteboard, but its use is limited to smaller presentations.活動掛圖由你“翻轉”或翻過的幾頁紙組成。與白板相比,有些人更喜歡掛圖,但它的使用僅限于較小的演示文稿。

35mm slide projector35mm幻燈機

The Slide projector - which must be used in a darkened room - adds a certain drama. Slide projectors have mostly been overtaken by digital electronic media and are rare today. Some slide projectors can be synchronised with audio for audio-visual (AV) presentations. These projectors are typically used for larger presentations. The majority take 35mm slides or transparencies (as seen here), but projectors for 6x6cm slides are also available.幻燈機——必須在黑暗的房間里使用——增加了某種戲劇性。幻燈放映機大多已經被數字電子媒體所取代,在今天已經很少見了。一些幻燈機可以與音頻同步,用于視聽(AV)演示。這些投影儀通常用于較大的演示。大多數采用35毫米幻燈片或透明膠片(如圖所示),但也提供6厘米6厘米幻燈片的投影儀。

screen屏幕

Transparencies are projected by an overhead projector or a slide projector onto a screen - in this case a folding screen which can be packed up and transported.透明膠片通過投影機或幻燈機投射到屏幕上,在這種情況下,就是可以打包和運輸的折疊屏幕。

handouts講義

Handouts are any documents or samples that you ’hand out’ or distribute to your audience. Note that it is not usually a good idea to distribute handouts before your presentation. The audience will read the handouts instead of listening to you.講義是你“分發”或分發給聽眾的任何文件或樣本。請注意,在演講前分發講義通常不是一個好主意。聽眾會讀講義而不是聽你講。

’Delivery’ refers to the way in which you actually deliver or perform or give your presentation. Delivery is a vital aspect of all presentations. Delivery is at least as important as content, especially in a multi-cultural context.“發表”是指你實際交演講、執行或陳述的方式。發表是所有演示文稿的一個重要方面。發表至少與內容同等重要,尤其是在多元文化背景下。

Nerves神經

Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning of a presentation. So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention to the beginning of your presentation. First impressions count. This is the time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time, try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduction by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.大多數演講者在演講開始時都有點緊張。所以你緊張是正常的。答案是要特別注意你演講的開頭。第一印象很重要。這是你與聽眾建立融洽關系的時候。在這段時間里,試著慢慢地、平靜地說話。你也許應該把你的介紹背下來。幾分鐘后,你就會放松,獲得自信。

Audience Rapport觀眾關系

You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audience. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic your audience will be enthusiastic too. And be careful to establish eye contact with each member of your audience. Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. This means that you must look at each person in turn - in as natural a way as possible. This will also give you the opportunity to detect signs of boredom, disinterest or even disagreement, allowing you to modify your presentation as appropriate.你需要和你的聽眾建立一種熱情友好的關系。熱情是會傳染的。如果你很熱情,你的聽眾也會很熱情。注意與每一位聽眾建立眼神交流。每個人都應該感覺到你在直接和他或她說話。這意味著你必須以盡可能自然的方式依次看待每個人。這也會讓你有機會發現無聊,不感興趣,甚至不同意的跡象,讓你修改你的陳述適當。

Body Language肢體語言

What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room. Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making a presentation. Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures. Be aware, too, that the movement of your body is one of your methods of control. When you move to or from the whiteboard, for example, you can move fast or slowly, raising or reducing the dynamism within the audience. You can stand very still while talking or you can stroll from side to side. What effect do you think these two different approaches would have on an audience?你不說的至少和你說的一樣重要。你的身體甚至在你開口之前就已經在對你的聽眾說話了。你的衣服,你的走路,你的眼鏡,你的發型,你的表情-正是從這些你的觀眾形成的第一印象,你進入房間。一般來說,做報告時最好站著而不是坐著。注意并避免任何重復和惱人的手勢。也要注意,你身體的運動是你控制的方法之一。例如,當你在白板上移動或離開白板時,你可以快速或緩慢地移動,提高或降低觀眾的活力。你可以一邊說話一邊站著不動,也可以左右走動。你認為這兩種不同的方法會對聽眾產生什么影響?

Cultural Considerations文化因素

Because English is so widely used around the world, it is quite possible that many members of your audience will not be native English-speakers. In other words, they will not have an Anglo-Saxon culture. Even within the Anglo-Saxon world, there are many differences in culture. If we hypothetically imagine a German working for an Israeli company making a presentation in English to a Japanese audience in Korea, we can see that there are even more possibilities for cultural misunderstanding. You should try to learn about any particular cultural matters that may affect your audience. This is one reason why preparation for your presentation is so important. Cultural differences can also be seen in body language, which we have just discussed. To a Latin from Southern France or Italy, a presenter who uses his hands and arms when speaking may seem dynamic and friendly. To an Englishman, the same presenter may seem unsure of his words and lacking in self-confidence.由于英語在世界各地的應用如此廣泛,你的許多聽眾很可能不是以英語為母語的人。換句話說,他們不會有盎格魯撒克遜文化。即使在盎格魯撒克遜世界內部,文化也有許多差異。如果我們假設一個為以色列公司工作的德國人用英語向在韓國的日本觀眾做演講,我們會發現文化誤解的可能性更大。你應該嘗試了解任何可能影響你的聽眾的特定文化問題。這就是為什么你的演講準備如此重要的原因之一。文化差異也可以從我們剛才討論的肢體語言中看到。對于一個來自法國南部或意大利的拉丁人來說,演講時用手和胳膊的演講者似乎充滿活力和友好。對一個英國人來說,同一個演講者似乎不確定自己的話,缺乏自信。

Voice quality音質

It is, of course, important that your audience be able to hear you clearly throughout your presentation. Remember that if you turn away from your audience, for example towards the whiteboard, you need to speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your voice. Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary your voice in at least three ways:當然,重要的是你的聽眾能夠在你的演講中清晰地聽到你的聲音。記住,如果你離開你的聽眾,比如對著白板,你需要大聲一點。一般來說,你應該試著改變你的聲音。你的聲音對你的聽眾來說會更有趣。您至少可以通過三種方式改變您的聲音:

speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you can speak more slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause. This is a very good technique for gaining your audience’s attention. /intonation: you can change the pitch of your voice. You can speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone. /volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can again attract your audience’s interest. The important point is not to speak in the same, flat, monotonous voice throughout your presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use to put their patients’ into trance!速度:你可以以正常的速度說話,你可以說得更快,你可以說得更慢-你可以完全停止!你可以停下來。這是一個非常好的技巧,以獲得您的觀眾的注意。/語調:你可以改變聲音的音調。你可以用高音說話。你可以低聲說話。/音量:你可以用正常的音量說話,可以大聲說話,也可以安靜地說話。小聲點說話能再次吸引聽眾的興趣。重要的一點是在你的演講中不要用相同的、平淡的、單調的聲音——這是催眠師用來讓病人進入恍惚狀態的聲音!

Visual aids視覺教具

Of all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority of it enters through the eyes. 80% of what your audience learn during your presentation is learned visually (what they see) and only 20% is learned aurally (what they hear). The significance of this is obvious:在所有進入我們大腦的信息中,絕大多數是通過眼睛進入的。在你的演講中,80%的聽眾是通過視覺(他們看到的)學習的,只有20%的聽眾是通過聽覺(他們聽到的)學習的。其意義顯而易見:

visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication /non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spoken English - they can rely more heavily on visual aids. It is well worth spending time in the creation of good visual aids. But it is equally important not to overload your audience’s brains. Keep the information on each visual aid to a minimum - and give your audience time to look at and absorb this information. Remember, your audience have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study and to understand them. Without understanding there is no communication. Apart from photographs and drawings, some of the most useful visual aids are charts and graphs, like the 3-dimensional視覺教具是一種非常有效的交流手段/非英語母語人士不必太擔心英語口語-他們可以更依賴視覺教具。花時間創作好的視覺輔助工具是非常值得的。但同樣重要的是,不要讓聽眾的大腦負擔過重。盡量減少每個視覺輔助工具上的信息,給你的觀眾時間去看和吸收這些信息。請記住,您的觀眾以前從未見過這些視覺輔助工具。他們需要時間來學習和理解他們。沒有理解就沒有交流。除了照片和圖畫之外,一些最有用的視覺輔助工具是圖表和圖形,比如三維圖形

ones shown here:這里顯示的是:

3D piechart: Piecharts are circular in shape (like a pie). /3D barchart: Barcharts can be vertical (as here) or horizontal. /3D graph: Graphs can rise and fall.三維餅圖:餅圖是圓形的(像一個餅)。/三維條形圖:條形圖可以是垂直的(如這里所示)或水平的。/三維圖形:圖形可以上升和下降。

Audience Reaction觀眾反應

Remain calm and polite if you receive difficult or even hostile questions during your presentation. If you receive particularly awkward questions, you might suggest that the questioners ask their questions after your presentation.如果你在演講過程中遇到困難甚至敵對的問題,保持冷靜和禮貌。如果你收到特別尷尬的問題,你可以建議提問者在你演講后問他們的問題。

Language in the speech.演講中使用的言語

Simplicity and Clarity簡潔明了

If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must be simple and clear. Use short words and short sentences. /Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it. /In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. /Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing:如果你想讓你的聽眾理解你的信息,你的語言必須簡單明了。使用短詞和短句。/不要使用行話,除非你確信你的聽眾能理解。/一般來說,談論具體的事實而不是抽象的想法。/用主動動詞代替被動動詞。主動動詞更容易理解。他們更強大。想想這兩句話,它們說的是同一件事:

Toyota sold nine million vehicles last year. /Nine million vehicles were sold by Toyota last year.豐田去年售出900萬輛汽車。/豐田去年售出900萬輛汽車。

Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? 1 is active and 2 is passive.哪個更容易理解?哪個更直接?哪個更強大?1是主動的,2是被動的。

Signposting信號提示

When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number. If you are at house #100, you can go back to #50 or forward to #150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a presentation, how can your audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called ’signposting’ (or ’signalling’).當你在路上開車時,你知道你在那些路上的位置。每條路都有一個名字或號碼。每個城鎮都有一個名字。每家都有一個號碼。如果你在100號房,你可以回到50號房,也可以轉到150號房。你可以看路標看方向。你可以看你的地圖冊來詳細了解道路的結構。換言之,在道路上行駛很容易。你不能迷路。但是當你做演講的時候,你的聽眾怎么知道他們在哪里呢?他們怎么知道你演講的結構?他們怎么知道接下來會發生什么?他們知道是因為你告訴了他們。因為你在一開始和沿途都為他們豎起了路標。這種技術被稱為“路標”(或“信號”)。

During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your presentation will be. You might say something like this:在你的介紹中,你應該告訴你的聽眾你的演講的結構是什么。你可以這樣說:

"I’ll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I’ll move on to some of the achievements we’ve made in Asia. After that I’ll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I’ll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations."“我先來描述一下目前在歐洲的狀況。接下來我將介紹我們在亞洲取得的一些成就。之后,我將考慮我們看到的在非洲進一步擴張的機會。最后,在總結一些建議之前,我將快速回顧一下。”

A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this:觀眾現在可以將您的演示形象化為:

Introduction /Welcome /Explanation of structure (now)介紹/歡迎/解釋結構(現在)

Body /Europe /Asia /Africa主體/歐洲/亞洲/非洲

Conclusion /Summing up /Recommendations結論/總結/建議

He will keep this image in his head during the presentation. He may even write it down. And throughout your presentation, you will put up signposts telling him which point you have reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you might say: "That’s all I have to say about Europe. Let’s turn now to Asia." When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say: "Well, we’ve looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I’d like to sum up now." And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say: "What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..."在演講過程中,他會一直把這個形象記在腦子里。他甚至可以寫下來。在整個演講過程中,你會豎起路標,告訴他你已經到達了哪一點,你現在要去哪里。當你完成了歐洲,想要開始亞洲,你可能會說:“這就是我要說的關于歐洲的一切。現在我們來談談亞洲。”當你講完非洲并想總結一下時,你可能會說:“好吧,我們看了歐洲、亞洲和非洲三大洲。現在我想總結一下。”當你總結完并想提出建議時,你可能會說:“這一切對我們意味著什么?嗯,首先我建議……”

The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of your presentation.下表列出了一些有用的表達式,您可以使用這些表達式來標示演示文稿的各個部分。

Signposting /Function /Language路標/功能/語言

Introducing the subject:I’d like to start by... /Let’s begin by... /First of all, I’ll... /Starting with... /I’ll begin by...介紹主題:我想從。。。/讓我們從。。。/首先,我會。。。/從。。。/我先從。。。

Finishing one subject...:Well, I’ve told you about... /That’s all I have to say about... /We’ve looked at... /So much for...完成一個主題…:嗯,我告訴過你。。。/這就是我要說的。。。/我們已經看了。。。/就這么多。。。

...and starting another:Now we’ll move on to... /Let me turn now to... /Next... /Turning to... /I’d like now to discuss... /Let’s look now at...…開始另一個:現在我們繼續。。。/現在讓我來談談。。。/下一個。。。/轉向。。。/我現在想討論一下。。。/現在讓我們看看。。。

Analysing a point and giving recommendations:Where does that lead us? /Let’s consider this in more detail... /What does this mean for ABC? /Translated into real terms...分析一個觀點并給出建議:這將把我們引向何方?/讓我們更詳細地考慮一下。。。/這對ABC意味著什么?/翻譯成實際情況。。。

Giving an example:For example,... /A good example of this is... /As an illustration,... /To give you an example,... /To illustrate this point...舉個例子:例如,。。。/一個很好的例子是。。。/舉例來說,。。。/舉個例子,。。。/為了說明這一點。。。

Dealing with questions:We’ll be examining this point in more detail later on... /I’d like to deal with this question later, if I may... /I’ll come back to this question later in my talk... /Perhaps you’d like to raise this point at the end... /I won’t comment on this now...處理問題:我們稍后將更詳細地研究這一點。。。/我想稍后再處理這個問題,如果可以的話。。。/我稍后會在我的演講中回到這個問題。。。/也許你想在最后提出這一點。。。/我現在不評論這個。。。

Summarising and concluding:In conclusion,... /Right, let’s sum up, shall we? /I’d like now to recap... /Let’s summarise briefly what we’ve looked at... /Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we’ve covered... /If I can just sum up the main points...總結和概括:總之,。。。/好的,讓我們總結一下,好嗎?/現在我想重述一下。。。/讓我們簡要總結一下我們所看到的。。。/最后,讓我提醒你我們討論過的一些問題。。。/如果我能總結一下要點。。。

Ordering:Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly... /First of all...then...next...after that...finally... /To start with...later...to finish up...順序:第一…第二…第三…最后。。。/首先…然后…接下來…之后…最后。。。/開始…稍后…結束。。。

That’s all I have to say about the language of presentations. Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):關于演講語言,我只想說這些。大多數演示文稿分為3個主要部分(+問題):

1 INTRODUCTION (Questions) /2 BODY /3 CONCLUSION /Questions1引言(問題)/2正文/3結論/問題

As a general rule in communication, repetition is valuable. In presentations, there is a golden rule about repetition:作為交流的一般規則,重復是有價值的。在演講中,重復有一條黃金法則:

Say what you are going to say... /say it... /then say what you have just said.說出你要說的話。。。/說吧。。。/那就說你剛才說的話。

In other words, use the three parts of your presentation to reinforce your message. In the introduction, you tell your audience what your message is going to be. In the body, you tell your audience your real message. In the conclusion, you summarize what your message was. We will now consider each of these parts in more detail.換句話說,用你演講的三個部分來強化你的信息。在開場白中,你告訴你的聽眾你的信息是什么。在主體部分里,你告訴你的聽眾你真正的信息。在結論中,你總結了你的信息是什么。我們現在將更詳細地考慮其中的每一部分。

Introduction開場白

The introduction is a very important - perhaps the most important - part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you. You should concentrate on getting your introduction right. You should use the introduction to:開場白是你演講中非常重要的部分,也許是最重要的部分。這是你的聽眾對你的第一印象。你應該集中精力把你的介紹做好。您應該使用簡介:

welcome your audience /introduce your subject /outline the structure of your presentation /give instructions about questions歡迎你的聽眾/介紹你的主題/概述你演講的結構/就問題給出說明

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.下表顯示了每個函數的語言示例。您可能需要根據需要修改語言。

Function /Possible language功能/可能的語言

1.Welcoming your audience:Good morning, ladies and gentlemen /Good morning, gentlemen /Good afternoon, ladies and gentleman /Good afternoon, everybody1.歡迎各位聽眾:早上好,女士們先生們/早上好,先生們/下午好,女士們先生們/大家下午好

2.Introducing your subject:I am going to talk today about... /The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of...2.介紹你的主題:我今天要談談。。。/我演講的目的是介紹我們的新系列。。。

3.Outlining your structure:To start with I’ll describe the progress made this year. Then I’ll mention some of the problems we’ve encountered and how we overcame them. After that I’ll consider the possibilities for further growth next year. Finally, I’ll summarize my presentation (before concluding with some recommendations).3.概述你的結構:首先,我將描述今年取得的進展。然后我會提到我們遇到的一些問題,以及我們是如何克服它們的。在那之后,我將考慮明年進一步增長的可能性。最后,我將總結一下我的演講(在總結一些建議之前)。

4.Giving instructions about questions :Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions. /I’ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation. /I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.4.關于問題的指示:如果你有任何問題,請隨時打斷我。/演講結束后,我會盡力回答你所有的問題。/我計劃在演講后留點時間提問。

Body主體部分

The body is the ’real’ presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be ’in control’. You will be relaxed and confident. The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals. Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation: do not hurry /be enthusiastic /give time on visuals /maintain eye contact /modulate your voice /look friendly /keep to your structure /use your notes /signpost throughout /remain polite when dealing with difficult questions主體部分才是真正的表現。如果介紹準備得很好,你現在就可以“掌控”了。你會放松和自信。身體應該有良好的結構,有邏輯的劃分,有大量仔細間隔的視覺效果。在演講時要記住以下要點:不要著急/要熱情/在視覺上花時間/保持眼神交流/調節聲音/看起來友好/保持結構/使用筆記/路標/在處理困難問題時保持禮貌

Conclusion總結部分

Use the conclusion to: Sum up /(Give recommendations if appropriate) /Thank your audience /Invite questions使用結論:總結/(適當時給出建議)/感謝聽眾/提出問題

The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions. You may need to modify the language as appropriate.下表顯示了每個功能的語言示例。您可能需要根據需要修改語言。

Function /Possible language功能/可能的語言

1.Summing up:To conclude,... /In conclusion,... /Now, to sum up... /So let me summarise/recap what I’ve said. /Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we’ve considered.1.總結:總結,。。。/總之,。。。/總而言之。。。/讓我總結一下我所說的。/最后,請允許我提醒你我們考慮過的一些要點。

2.Giving recommendations:In conclusion, my recommendations are... /I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.2.提出建議:總之,我的建議是。。。/因此,我建議采取以下戰略。

3.Thanking your audience:Many thanks for your attention. /May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.3.感謝觀眾:非常感謝大家的關注。/請允許我感謝你們所有人是如此細心的聽眾。

4.Inviting questionsNow I’ll try to answer any questions you may have. /Can I answer any questions? /Are there any questions? /Do you have any questions? /Are there any final questions?4.邀請提問:現在我試著回答你的任何問題。/我能回答任何問題嗎?/有什么問題嗎?/你有什么問題嗎?/還有最后的問題嗎?

Questions提問

Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for questions after your presentation. Normally, it’s your decision, and you should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.提問是你與聽眾互動的好機會。你可以試著預測會被問到什么問題,這樣你就可以提前準備好你的回答。您可能希望在演示過程中隨時接受問題,或在演示結束后留出時間回答問題。通常,這是你的決定,你應該在介紹的時候說清楚。對所有提問者都要有禮貌,即使他們問的問題很難。他們對你要說的話很感興趣,值得關注。有時你可以重新提出一個問題。或者用另一個問題來回答這個問題。甚至向其他觀眾征求意見。

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